Compression therapy using graduated compression stockings (GCSs) is a common treatment strategy for chronic venous disease (CVD). However, one of the challenges in managing this condition has been the lack of a uniform and objective standard to assess patient adherence to GCS usage. In a groundbreaking study published in Phlebology: The Journal of Venous Disease, researchers have developed and validated the Graduated Compression Stockings Adherence Scale (GCSAS), aiming to bridge gaps in internationally recognized comprehensive scales and provide a valuable tool for future research.
The study, led by Xiaotong Qi, Mingyi Zhang, Wu Yu, Kun Ran, and Yikuan Chen, embarked on creating the GCSAS by carefully crafting its items based on a thorough literature review and open-ended interviews with experts. Initial items underwent scrutiny through an item-level content validity index. Subsequently, the researchers conducted pilot tests with 50 participants on three occasions. After eliminating redundant and cross-loading items through exploratory factor analysis, the team recruited 290 subjects to assess the reliability and validity of the GCSAS. The analyses encompassed internal consistency, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, construct validity, criterion validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.
The final GCSAS comprised 17 items and 5 dimensions. The exploratory factor analysis revealed that each factor explained variances of 22.03%, 14.85%, 14.74%, 14.16%, and 13.35%, with all 5 factors explaining 79.13% of the variance among the 17 items. The factor loadings for all items exceeded 0.7. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the adequacy of the indices. Notably, a significant positive correlation was identified between the GCSAS and the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study – Quality of Life questionnaire scores (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). The GCSAS demonstrated impressive reliability, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.90, test–retest reliability at 0.81, and split-half reliability at 0.92.
The development of the GCSAS represents a significant stride in the field of phlebology. This newly validated scale is poised to become a vital tool in assessing compliance with GCS usage among patients with CVD. The meticulous work undertaken by Xiaotong Qi, Mingyi Zhang, Wu Yu, Kun Ran, and Yikuan Chen has produced a scale that demonstrates exceptional validity and reliability.
This research opens doors for improved adherence measurement, which can ultimately enhance patient care and outcomes in the management of chronic venous disease.
For more details on this research, please refer to the article published in Phlebology: The Journal of Venous Disease. The full study is available at this link.
For more articles and information on phlebology, visit the official website of Phlebology: The Journal of Venous Disease here.